Can you distinguish polyester, nylon, acrylic, vinylon, polypropylene, and spandex?

2021/04/12

Can you distinguish polyester, nylon, acrylic, nylon, polypropylene, and spandex?

Polyester, acrylic, nylon, polypropylene, nylon, spandex: six major chemical fibers, the following briefly introduces their respective characteristics.


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Can you distinguish polyester, nylon, acrylic, vinylon, polypropylene, and spandex?

 

Polyester, acrylic, nylon, polypropylene, vinylon, spandex: six major chemical fibers, the following briefly introduces their respective characteristics.

Polyester, acrylic, nylon, polypropylene, vinylon, spandex

#1. Polyester: stiff and not wrinkled

 

1.1 Features

High strength, good impact resistance, heat resistance, corrosion resistance, moth resistance, acid and alkali resistance, good light resistance (second only to acrylic), 1000 hours of exposure, strong retention of 60-70%, poor moisture absorption, dyeing Difficult, the fabric is easy to wash and dry, and has good shape retention. It has the characteristics of "washable and wearable".

 

1.2 Purpose

Filament use: often used as low-stretch yarn to make various textiles;

Staple fiber use: cotton, wool, linen, etc. can be blended, industrial: tire cord, fishing nets, ropes, filter cloth, insulation materials, etc. It is currently the largest amount of chemical fiber.

 

1.3 Dyeing

Generally, disperse dyes are used for dyeing, and high temperature and high pressure dyeing is used.

 High temperature and pressure dyeing

#2. Nylon: strong and wear-resistant

 

2.1. Features

The biggest advantage of nylon is that it is strong and wear-resistant, and it is the best one. Low density, light fabric, good elasticity, fatigue resistance, good chemical stability, alkali and acid resistance.

 

The biggest disadvantage is that the sun resistance is not good, the fabric will turn yellow after long exposure, the strength will decrease, and the moisture absorption is not good, but it is better than acrylic and polyester.

 

2.2. Purpose

Filament is mostly used in knitting and silk industry; staple fiber is mostly blended with wool or wool-type chemical fiber for gabardine, vanidine, etc. Industry: cords and fishing nets, and can also be used as carpets, ropes, conveyor belts, screens, etc.

 

2.3. Dyeing

Generally, acid dyes are used, which can be dyed at room temperature and pressure.

Dyeing at room temperature and pressure

#3. Acrylic: bulky and light fastness

 

3.1 Introduction

 

The performance of acrylic fiber is very similar to wool, so it is called "synthetic wool".

Molecular structure: Acrylic fiber is unique in the internal structure of Oita, showing an irregular spiral conformation, and there is no strict crystallization area, but there are high-order and low-order arrangements. Because of this structure, acrylic fiber has good thermal elasticity (processable bulked yarn), acrylic fiber has a low density, which is smaller than wool, and the fabric has good warmth retention.

 

3.2 Features

Sunlight resistance and weather resistance are very good (ranking first), poor moisture absorption, and difficult to dye.

 

Pure acrylonitrile fiber has a compact internal structure and poor wearability. Therefore, the second and third monomers are added to improve its performance. The second monomer improves the elasticity and feel, and the third monomer improves the dyeability.

 

3.3 Purpose

Mainly for civilian use, it can be pure or blended to make a variety of wool, wool, blankets, sportswear; also: artificial fur, plush, bulked yarn, hose, parasol cloth, etc.

 

3.4 Dyeing

Generally, cationic dyes are used, which can be dyed at room temperature and pressure.

Dyeing at room temperature and pressure

#4. Vinylon: Water-soluble moisture absorption

 

4.1 Features

Vinylon's biggest feature is its high moisture absorption, the best synthetic fiber, and it is known as "synthetic cotton". The strength is worse than that of nylon and polyester, and the chemical stability is good. It is not resistant to strong acids and alkalis. Sunlight resistance and weather resistance are also very good, but it is resistant to dry heat but not damp heat (shrinkage) elasticity, the fabric is easy to wrinkle, dyeing is poor, and the color is not bright.

 

4.2 Purpose

Multi-cotton blends: muslin, poplin, corduroy, underwear, canvas, tarpaulin, packaging materials, work clothes, etc.

 

4.3 Dyeing

Direct dyes, reactive dyes, disperse dyes, etc. can all dye vinylon, but the dye depth is poor.

Direct dyes, reactive dyes and disperse dyes can be dyed

#5. Polypropylene: light in quality to keep warm

 

5.1 Features

Polypropylene fiber is the lightest fiber among common chemical fibers. It hardly absorbs moisture, but has good wicking ability, high strength, stable fabric size, good abrasion resistance and good chemical stability. But: poor thermal stability, not sun-resistant, easy to aging and brittle damage.

 

5.2 Purpose

Can knit socks, mosquito nets, quilts, warm padding, wet diapers, etc. Industrial: Carpets, fishing nets, canvases, hoses, medical tapes instead of cotton gauze, and sanitary products.

 

5.3 Dyeing

Polypropylene is difficult to color, and it is dyed with disperse dyes after modification.

Disperse dye dyeing

#6. spandex: elastic fiber

 

6.1 Features

Spandex has the best elasticity, worst strength, poor moisture absorption, and has good light resistance, acid resistance, alkali resistance, and abrasion resistance. Spandex is a highly elastic fiber necessary for high-performance clothing that is dynamic and convenient. Spandex can be extended 5-7 times longer than the original shape, so it is comfortable to wear, soft to the touch, wrinkle-free, and can always maintain the original contour.

 

6.2. Purpose

Spandex is widely used in underwear, women's underwear, casual wear, sportswear, socks, pantyhose, bandages and other textile fields and medical fields based on its characteristics.

 

6.3 Dyeing

Spandex is also difficult to color, and now it can be dyed with acid dyes with spandex coloring agent.


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